Cannabis Ruderalis

When most people think of cannabis, they picture the iconic fan leaves of Cannabis sativa or the dense, resinous buds of Cannabis indica. However, there’s a third, lesser-known member of the cannabis family that deserves attention: Cannabis ruderalis. This hardy, adaptable plant has played a crucial role in the development of modern cannabis strains, despite its relatively low THC content. In this in-depth guide, we’ll explore the origins, characteristics, and applications of this fascinating species.

What is Cannabis Ruderalis?

Cannabis ruderalis is a low-THC species of cannabis that is native to Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and Central Asia1. The term “ruderalis” comes from the Latin word “ruderal,” which refers to a plant that grows in spite of disturbance or in waste places. This name reflects the plant’s ability to thrive in harsh environments and adapt to a variety of conditions.Key features of Cannabis ruderalis include:

Ruderalis is believed to have originated as a wild or feral offshoot of Cannabis indica that adapted to the shorter growing seasons and colder climates of northern latitudes. Its unique traits allowed it to survive and reproduce in environments where other cannabis species could not.

The Discovery and Classification of Cannabis Ruderalis

Cannabis ruderalis was first identified as a distinct species in 1924 by Russian botanist D.E. Janischewsky. He noted that this wild cannabis plant had different characteristics than the cultivated hemp and drug varieties known at the time.However, the taxonomic status of Cannabis ruderalis has been a subject of debate among botanists and cannabis experts. Some argue that it should be considered a subspecies of Cannabis sativa, while others maintain that it is a separate species altogether.The current scientific consensus is that all cannabis plants belong to a single species, Cannabis sativa L., with several subspecies or varieties, including:

Despite this classification, the term “Cannabis ruderalis” is still widely used in the cannabis community to refer to auto-flowering strains and their ruderalis-derived traits.

The Unique Characteristics of Cannabis Ruderalis

What sets Cannabis ruderalis apart from its more famous relatives? Let’s take a closer look at some of its distinctive features:

Auto-flowering

The most notable trait of Cannabis ruderalis is its ability to auto-flower, meaning it will enter the flowering stage based on age rather than light cycle1. Most cannabis strains require a specific light schedule (usually 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness) to trigger flowering. In contrast, ruderalis will begin flowering after a certain number of weeks, regardless of the light cycle.This adaptation allows ruderalis to complete its life cycle in the short, cool summers of northern regions where the sun may not set for weeks at a time. Auto-flowering is a valuable trait for outdoor growers in cold climates and indoor growers who want a faster turnover.

Hardiness and Adaptability

Cannabis ruderalis is incredibly resilient and can survive in harsh conditions that would kill other cannabis plants. It is resistant to cold, pests, and disease, and can grow in poor soils with minimal nutrients1.This hardiness is a result of ruderalis’ wild origins and its need to adapt to challenging environments. It has been used to breed new strains that are more resistant to environmental stresses and easier to grow in a variety of conditions.

Size and Structure

Ruderalis plants are typically much smaller than sativa or indica, rarely exceeding 2 feet in height2. They have a compact, bushy structure with thick stems and dense branching. The leaves are broad and have fewer blades than other cannabis species.This small size and sturdy structure make ruderalis well-suited for growing in confined spaces or in areas with strong winds and heavy rain. It also allows for a higher plant density in outdoor and indoor grows.

Cannabinoid Profile

While Cannabis ruderalis is low in THC compared to other species (usually less than 3%), it often has a higher ratio of CBD to THC. CBD (cannabidiol) is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid that has been studied for its potential therapeutic benefits, such as reducing anxiety, inflammation, and seizures.The higher CBD content of ruderalis has made it attractive to breeders looking to create new strains with a more balanced cannabinoid profile. Many high-CBD strains on the market today have some ruderalis genetics.

The Role of Cannabis Ruderalis in Modern Breeding

Although pure Cannabis ruderalis strains are rarely consumed on their own due to their low THC content, they have played a significant role in the development of modern cannabis hybrids. Breeders have used ruderalis genetics to create auto-flowering versions of popular strains and to introduce desirable traits like hardiness and high CBD production.Some notable ruderalis-derived strains include:

By incorporating ruderalis genetics, breeders have been able to create strains that are easier to grow, more resistant to environmental stresses, and have a faster turnover. This has made cannabis cultivation more accessible to a wider range of growers, from beginners to commercial producers.

The Future of Cannabis Ruderalis Research

Despite its importance in modern cannabis breeding, Cannabis ruderalis remains relatively understudied compared to sativa and indica. As cannabis legalization spreads and research restrictions ease, there is growing interest in exploring the unique properties and potential applications of this species.Some areas of future research may include:

As our understanding of Cannabis ruderalis grows, it is likely that this once-overlooked species will play an increasingly important role in the future of cannabis science and industry.

Conclusion

Cannabis ruderalis may not have the star power of its more famous cousins, but it is a fascinating and important member of the cannabis family. Its unique adaptations, hardy nature, and auto-flowering ability have made it a valuable tool for breeders looking to create new strains with improved traits.As cannabis legalization and research continue to expand, we can expect to learn more about the potential of this resilient little plant. Whether you’re a grower, a breeder, a medical patient, or simply a curious cannabis enthusiast, Cannabis ruderalis is worth getting to know.So the next time you enjoy an auto-flowering strain or a high-CBD product, take a moment to appreciate the contributions of this unsung hero of the cannabis world. Cannabis ruderalis may be small in stature, but it has had a big impact on the modern cannabis landscape.